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Report 2-10-2015
The Gorbachev-Bush Artificial Clouds Letters
Moynihan
Royal Society
Congress Listens
Dr. Hansen Says Yes!
Climate Engineers
Dr. Nathan Myhrvold says yes!
Dr. Teller's Paper on Artificial Clouds
Dr. Teller's 2nd Paper
Dr. Crutzen's and Dr. Wigley's Papers on Artificial Clouds
SuperFreakenomics
Dr. Ken Caldeira's Papers on Artificial Clouds & Carbon Mgmt.
Dr. Gregory Benford's Paper on Artificial Clouds
Clouds
SUN, COSMIC RAYS, & CLIMATE CHANGE
Earths Bio Response
Abrupt Climate Change: Oceans
Abrupt Climate Change: Permafrost
Macro Engineering: Climate
Remediation: Artificial Clouds
Remediation: Nuclear Power
Remediation: Forests, Plankton, Sequestration
Remediation: Bio Technology
Politics and Technology
Ethanol Fraud
Geo Engineering: Venice
Geo Engineering: Mississippi Delta
Geo Engineering: ! Save Earth!

Добро пожаловать к институту Горбачюев-Bush искусственних облаков @NewRuskinCollege.com

Link to New Library@NewRuskinCollege.org

Archivist’s  Note:
The original Gorbachev-Bush letters are currently in the Kremlin Archives and the archives of the Bush Presidential Papers.  New Ruskin College has the only other known copies.

Can we defuse
neptune_clouds.jpg
The Global Warming Time Bomb?

Добро пожаловать институт  Иоффе, наши русские друзья!          Защитите Землю!
 
Note: 
About a year before his death Dr. Teller gave an interview to a local TV station.  (Channel 7 as I recall.)  Without explanation the reporter asked Dr. Teller if he agreed that a 25% to 50% of one percent reduction in solar energy reaching the planet Earth would be sufficient to counter the effects of Global Warming.

Dr. Teller gave no indication of surprise at the question, raised his eye brows once or twice and said he agreed that it would be on that order.

Counselor:  Well that saves you a lot of work, I mean calculating.

It is just an order of magnitude.  A back of the envelope estimate.  My estimate was based on the Lamb Dust Veil Index.

Counselor:  The Lamb Dust Veil Index?

Didn’t you ever hear of the Year without a Summer? There have been hundreds of volcanoes that have put enough dust into the atmosphere to alter the warming of the sun by reflecting sun light.  Dr. Lamb has made a list.  A 25 to 50 % of One Percent cloud would be invisible.  That is the order of magnitude.  But now I question you:   Why did the reporter ask   Dr. Teller such a question?
 

See Google Tech Talk on GeoEngineering

See geoengineering overview.

See talk on political history of climate change.

See good Canadian discussion of geo-engineering. Eh?

See why we must discuss geo-engineering.

See discussion of abrupt climate change.

See Ken Caldeira in group discussion of geoengineering.

HOOVER INSTITUTION

HOOVER DIGEST
1998 No. 1




EDWARD TELLER

Экран солнца для земли планеты

Sunscreen for  Planet EarthGLOBAL WARMING IS TOO SERIOUS TO BE LEFT TO THE POLITICIANS. HEREWITH A SCIENTIFIC SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM. (IF THERE IS A PROBLEM, THAT IS.)

Society's emissions of carbon dioxide may or may not turn out to have something significant to do with global warming--the jury is still out. As a scientist, I must stand silent on this issue until it's resolved scientifically. As a citizen, however, I can tell you that I'm entertained by the high political theater that the nation's politicians have engaged in over the last few months. It's wonderful to think that the world is so very wealthy that a single nation--America--can consider spending $100 billion or so each year to address a problem that may not exist--and that, if it does exist, certainly has unknown dimensions.

This is especially dramatic given that contemporary technology offers considerably more-realistic options for addressing

It's wonderful to think that the world is so very wealthy that a single nation -- America -- can consider spending $100 billion a year on a problem that may not exist.

any global warming effect than politicians and environmental activists are considering. Some of these may be far less burdensome than even a system of market-allocated emissions permits. One particularly attractive approach involves diminishing slightly--by about 1 percent--the amount of sunlight reaching the earth's surface in order to counteract any warming effect of greenhouse gases.

This is not a new concept and certainly not a complex one. Nature does this routinely: In 1991, the large Philippine volcano Mount Pinatubo threw myriad fine particles into the upper atmosphere, where they scattered small fractions of the sun's light and heat back into space. We already know that the eruption of Mexico's El Chichon a decade earlier induced cooling in the Northern Hemisphere by about one-quarter as much as the average prediction of the global warming expected by 2100 (assuming no politically imposed limits on emissions).

In 1979, physicist Freeman Dyson, in his characteristically prescient manner, proposed the deliberate, large-scale introduction of such fine particles into the upper atmosphere to offset global warming, which he thought even then would eventually become a human concern. Some of my colleagues and I have recently surveyed the current technological prospects for such an introduction. We estimated the costs involved and presented our results last August at the Twenty-second International Seminar on Planetary Emergencies. The most expensive such "geoengineering" option appears to be the one long ago proposed by Mr. Dyson, which may cost as much as $1 billion a year. More technologically advanced options along the same lines might cost $100 million.

That's between 0.1 and 1.0 percent of the $100 billion a year it is estimated would be required to price-ration fossil fuel usage back down to 1990 levels in the United States alone. As the National Academy of Sciences commented a few years ago in a landmark report,

Let us play to our uniquely American strengths in innovation and technology, offsetting any global warming by the least costly means possible.

"Perhaps one of the surprises of this analysis is the relatively low costs at which some of the geoengineering options might be implemented." Indeed, the director of the U.S. Global Change Research Program's Coordination Office has been promoting such geoengineering for three decades. But for some reason, this option isn't as fashionable as all-out war on fossil fuels and the people who use them.

Yet if the politics of global warming require that "something must be done" while we still don't know whether anything really needs to be done--let alone what exactly--let us play to our uniquely American strengths in innovation and technology to offset any global warming by the least costly means possible. While scientists continue research into any global climatic effects of greenhouse gases, we ought to study ways to offset any possible ill effects.

Injecting sunlight-scattering particles into the stratosphere appears to be a promising approach. Why not do that?

Reprinted from the Wall Street Journal, October 17, 1997, from an article titled "The Planet Needs a Sunscreen." Used with permission. 1997 Dow Jones & Company, Inc. All rights reserved.

 

Gretchen Cook-Anderson
Headquarters, Washington
(Phone: 202/358-0836)

John Bluck
Ames Research Center
, Moffett Field, Calif.
(Phone: 650/604-5026/9000)

Jim Scott
University
of Colorado, Boulder
(Phone: 303/492-3114)

RELEASE: 05-066

 

March 3, 2005

 

NASA Study Suggests Giant Space Clouds Iced Earth

Eons ago, giant clouds in space may have led to global extinctions, according to two recent technical papers supported by NASA's Astrobiology Institute.

One paper outlines a rare scenario in which Earth iced over during snowball glaciations, after the solar system passed through dense space clouds. In a more likely scenario, less dense giant molecular clouds may have enabled charged particles to enter Earth's atmosphere, leading to destruction of much of the planet's protective ozone layer.

 

This resulted in global extinctions, according to the second paper. Both recently appeared in the Geophysical Research Letters.

"Computer models show dramatic climate change can be caused by interstellar dust accumulating in Earth's atmosphere during the solar system's immersion into a dense space cloud," said Alex Pavlov, principal author of the two papers. He is a scientist at the
University of Colorado, Boulder. The resulting dust layer hovering over the Earth would absorb and scatter solar radiation, yet allow heat to escape from the planet into space, causing runaway ice buildup and snowball glaciations.

"There are indications from 600 to 800 million years ago; at least two of four glaciations were snowball glaciations. The big mystery revolves around how they are triggered," Pavlov said. He concluded the snowball glaciations covered the entire Earth.

Pavlov said this hypothesis has to be tested by geologists. They would look at Earth's rocks to find layers that relate to the snowball glaciations to assess whether uranium 235 is present in higher amounts. It cannot be produced naturally on Earth or in the solar system, but it is constantly produced in space clouds by exploding stars called supernovae.

Sudden, small changes in the uranium 235/238-ratio in rock layers would be proof interstellar material is present that originated from supernovae. Collisions of the solar system with dense space clouds are rare, but according to Pavlov’s research, more frequent solar system collisions, with moderately dense space clouds, can be devastating. He outlined a complex series of events that would result in loss of much of Earth's protective ozone layer, if the solar system collided with a moderately dense space cloud.

The research outlined a scenario that begins as Earth passes through a moderately dense space cloud that cannot compress the outer edge of the sun's heliosphere into a region within the Earth's orbit. The heliosphere is the expanse that begins at the sun's surface and usually reaches far past the orbits of the planets. Because it remains beyond Earth's orbit, the heliosphere continues to deflect dust particles away from the planet.

However, because of the large flow of hydrogen from space clouds into the sun's heliosphere, the sun greatly increases its production of electrically charged cosmic rays from the hydrogen particles. This also increases the flow of cosmic rays towards Earth. Normally, Earth's magnetic field and ozone layer protect life from cosmic rays and the sun's dangerous ultraviolet radiation.

Moderately dense space clouds are huge, and the solar system could take as long as 500,000 years to cross one of them. Once in such a cloud, the Earth would be expected to undergo at least one magnetic reversal. During a reversal, electrically charged cosmic rays can enter Earth's atmosphere instead of being deflected by the planet's magnetic field.

Cosmic rays can fly into the atmosphere and break up nitrogen molecules to form nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen oxide catalysts would set off the destruction of as much as 40 percent of the protective ozone in the planet's upper atmosphere across the globe and destruction of about 80 percent of the ozone over the polar regions according to Pavlov.

For information about NASA and agency programs on the Internet, visit:

http://www.nasa.gov





- end -


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isabel2_terra.jpg

cloud.jpg

coronado.jpg

mars_clouds.jpg

Эти облака над атмосферой neptune. Настолько высоко в действительности что они находятся фактическ в орбите над атмосферой! Замечательно, да?

 

These clouds are above the atmosphere of Neptune.  So high in fact that they are actually in orbit over the atmosphere!  Remarkable, yes?

PHOTO IS LINK TO NASA
wavcloud.jpg
CLOUD CLOUDCLIMATOLOGY

Библиография Облака:

  Cloud Bibliography:

[PDF] The iris hypothesis: A negative or positive cloud feedback
B Lin, BA Wielicki, LH Chambers, Y Hu, KM Xu - View as HTML - Cited by 18 - Web Search
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climate feedback for greenhouse gas–induced global warming ( 0.45 to about ...
Journal of Climate, 2002 - clouds.eos.ubc.ca - adsabs.harvard.edu

 [PDF] Why is the global warming proceeding much slower than expected
L Bengtsson, E Roeckner, M Stendel - View as HTML - Cited by 29
... BENGTSSON ET AL.: WHY IS THE GLOBAL WARMING SLOWER THAN EXPECTED? ... Doiron, CC Schnetzler,
AJ Krueger, and LS Walter, Global tracking of the SO 2 clouds from the ...
J. Geophys. Res, 1999 - glwww.dmi.dk - agu.org - agu.org - adsabs.harvard.edu

[PDF] Cosmic rays, clouds, and climate
N Marsh, H Svensmark - Cited by 35 - Web Search
... tributed ∼1.4Wm −2 to the observed global warming. These observations provide
compelling evidence to warrant further study of the effect of
GCR on clouds. ...
Space Sci. Rev, 2000 - kluweronline.com - dsri.dk - dsri.dk - adsabs.harvard.edu

 

[PDF] Kyoto’s Unfinished Business
HD Jacoby, RG Prinn, R Schmalensee - View as HTML - Cited by 33 - Web Search
... in the air, such as smoke and fog.) Water vapor and clouds, which typically ... Any global
warming will likely be delayed because it takes a lot of heat to warm ...
Foreign Affairs, 1998 - dspace.mit.edu - hpds1.mit.edu

 

Global cooling after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: A test of climate feedback by water vapor
BJ Soden, RT Wetherald, GL Stenchikov, A Robock, … - Cached - Cited by 15 - Web Search
... just the longer (decadal to century) time scales associated with global warming. ...
atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) with specified clouds coupled to a ...
Science, 2002 - intl.sciencemag.org - gps.caltech.edu - dx.doi.org - adsabs.harvard.edu - all 5 versions

The connection between tropical thunderstorms, upper tropospheric water vapor, and cirrus clouds
C Price, M Asfur - Web Search
... The amplitude of future global warming will depend strongly on how upper tropospheric
water vapor (UTWV) and cirrus clouds change in response to greenhouse gas ...
EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly, Abstracts from the meeting held …, 2003 - adsabs.harvard.edu

[PDF] Near-global survey of effective droplet radii in liquid water clouds using ISCCP data
Q Han, WB Rossow, AA Lacis - View as HTML - Cited by 96 - Web Search
Page 1. VOLUME 7 Near-Global Survey of Effective Droplet Radii in Liquid
Water Clouds Using ISCCP Data 1 . Introduction A global ...
J. Climate, 1994 - vortex.nsstc.uah.edu - nsstc.uah.edu - atmos.uah.edu - adsabs.harvard.edu - all 5 versions

[PDF] Cirrus detrainment-temperature feedback
C Chou, JD Neelin - View as HTML - Cited by 6 - Web Search
... Many global warming exper- iments in general circulation models (GCMs) show an in-
crease of ... a change in the height of the cirrus-like clouds producing the well ...
Geophys. Res. Lett, 1999 - ecrc.sinica.edu.tw - atmos.ucla.edu - agu.org - adsabs.harvard.edu - all 5 versions

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H Masunaga, TY Nakajima, T Nakajima, M Kachi, K … - View as HTML - Cited by 4 - Web Search
... unknown factors. Clouds thus provide the largest uncertainty in predicting
the future climate change such as global warming. Some of ...
JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, 2002 - ccsr.u-tokyo.ac.jp - rain.atmos.colostate.edu - rain.atmos.colostate.edu - adsabs.harvard.edu - all 6 versions

 

[PDF] How dry is the tropical free troposphere? Implications for global warming theory
RW Spencer, WD Braswell - View as HTML - Cited by 37 - Web Search
... the magnitude of water vapor feedback and thus the magnitude of global warming. ... microwave
measurements are still degraded if thick, ice-laden clouds are present ...
Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 1997 - earthscape.org

Potentially complex biosphere responses to transient global warming
RP Neilson, RJ Drapek - Cited by 38 - Web Search
... However, increased
AET could form more clouds, which could either act as a ... It may
be that in the early phases of global warming, while temperature increases ...
Global Change Biology, 1998 - blackwell-synergy.com - blackwell-synergy.com - ingenta.com - ingenta.com

[PDF] Water vapor feedback and global warming
IM Held, BJ Soden - Cited by 27 - Web Search
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from the surface, are absorbed by infrared-active gases or clouds and are ...
Annu. Rev. Energy Environ, 2000 - energy.annualreviews.org - spiderwort.gfdl.noaa.gov - soc.annualreviews.org - gfdl.gov - all 9 versions

Uncertainties in projections of human-caused climate warming
JD Mahlman - Cited by 46 - Web Search
... warming in the range of 1.5 o to 4.5 o C. These generous uncertainty brackets reflect
remaining limitations in modeling the radiative feedbacks of clouds, ...
Science, 1997 - sciencemag.org - intl.sciencemag.org - dx.doi.org - sciencemag.org

 [PDF] On the direct effect of clouds and atmospheric particles on the productivity and structure of …
ML Roderick, GD Farquhar, SL Berry, IR Noble - Cited by 20 - Web Search
... On the direct effect of clouds and atmospheric particles. ... Thus when the solar
disk is not obstructed by clouds or other atmospheric. 22. Fig. ...
Oecologia, 2001 - springerlink.com - as.wvu.edu

 General :

Science Now/ October 1995 - Clouds Impact Climate Change Scenarios
... Global cloud cover would provide less cooling than it does now. Clearly,
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PDF] NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
... and snow covers, and vegetation, providing high measurement accuracy, spatial
detail ... CALIPSO: A Global Perspective of Clouds and Aerosols from Space ...
calipsooutreach.hamptonu.edu/ workshop/handouts/Aura_EarthObservatory04.pdf - Similar pages

 

Snow Detection in Weather Satellite Imagery
... to look for to separate snow cover from cloud cover in satellite imagery. ...
snow cover data can be examined for evidence of global climate change. ...
henry.pha.jhu.edu/ssip/asat_int/snow.html - 8k - Cached - Similar pages

 

Cloud and Precipitation Systems ATSC 5210 Summary 1 Mariya ...
... Maximum cloud cover corresponds to intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) ...
in obtaining the consistent long-term global cloud observation datasets. ...
www-das.uwyo.edu/~vali/atsc5210/maria_1.html - 12k - Cached - Similar pages

 

[PDF] Page 1 Satellite Product Tutorials: Snow and Layered Clouds Above ...
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
... and climate research (monitoring global snow. cover trends). ... of a “brush
stroke” of snow cover across the terrain. Cloud cover span the ...
www.nrlmry.navy.mil/sat_training/ nexsat/high_low_cloud/NexSat_HiLo_CloudSnow.pdf - Similar pages

 

[PDF] World Cloud Cover Pattern pdf
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML
... World Cloud Cover Pattern. This illustration, produced by the Goddard ...
collected by the International Satellite Cloud ...
www.spacedu.com/nasa%20online%20lessons/ World_Cloud_Cover_Pattern.pdf - Similar pages

 

World Cloud Cover Pattern
... show the world's cloud cover pattern on October 15, 1983, assembled from ...
been collected by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project of ...
teacherlink.ed.usu.edu/ tlnasa/pictures/litho/worldcloud/ - 5k - Cached - Similar pages

 

Fiscal Year 2002 Accomplishments: The Global Water Cycle
US Global Change Research Program. Helping to understand, assess, predict, and
respond to ... water vapor, clouds, precipitation, soil moisture, snow cover, ...
www.usgcrp.gov/usgcrp/ ProgramElements/recent/waterFY2002.htm - 20k - Cached - Similar pages

 

[PPT] Ion-Aerosol-Cloud Influences on Climate
File Format: Microsoft Powerpoint 97 - View as HTML
... Temperature (global mean, regional, diurnal range, upper air...) Precipitation,
humidity, cloud cover. Snow cover. Sea-ice thickness and extent ...
www.env.leeds.ac.uk/envi2150/ slides/Lecture-2-Recent-Centuries.ppt - Similar pages

Sea Salt Inhibits Global Warming
bluemarble2k.jpg
Scientists at The University of Manchester

Frequently Asked Questions

 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Global Warming

 

All figures linked from this page with the exception of global surface temperatures are from the IPCC 2001 report 'Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis'.

 

Is the hydrological cycle (evaporation and precipitation) changing?

 

Overall, land precipitation for the globe has increased by ~2% since 1900, however, precipitation changes have been spatially variable over the last century. Instrumental records show that there has been a general increase in precipitation of about 0.5-1.0%/decade over land in northern mid-high latitudes, except in parts of eastern Russia. However, a decrease of about -0.3%/decade in precipitation has occurred during the 20th century over land in sub-tropical latitudes, though this trend has weakened in recent decades. Due to the difficulty in measuring precipitation, it has been important to constrain these observations by analyzing other related variables. The measured changes in precipitation are consistent with observed changes in streamflow, lake levels, and soil moisture (where data are available and have been analyzed).

 

Northern Hemisphere annual snow cover extent has consistently remained below average since 1987, and has decreased by about 10% since 1966. This is mostly due to a decrease in spring and summer snowfall over both the Eurasian and North American continents since the mid-1980s. However, winter and autumn snow cover extent has shown no significant trend for the northern hemisphere over the same period.

Improved satellite data shows that a general trend of increasing cloud amount over both land and ocean since the early 1980s, seems to have reversed in the early 1990s, and total cloud amount of land and ocean now appears to be decreasing. However, there are several studies that suggest regional cloudiness, perhaps especially in the thick precipitating clouds has increased over the 20th century. 

 

 

Can the observed changes be explained by natural variability, including changes in solar output?

 

Since our entire climate system is fundamentally driven by energy from the sun, it stands to reason that if the sun's energy output were to change, then so would the climate. Since the advent of space-borne measurements in the late 1970s, solar output has indeed been shown to vary. There appears to be confirmation of earlier suggestions of an 11 (and 22) year cycle of irradiance. With only 20 years of reliable measurements however, it is difficult to deduce a trend. But, from the short record we have so far, the trend in solar irradiance is estimated at ~0.09 W/m2 compared to 0.4 W/m2 from well-mixed greenhouse gases. There are many indications that the sun also has a longer-term variation which has potentially contributed to the century-scale forcing to a greater degree. There is though, a great deal of uncertainty in estimates of solar irradiance beyond what can be measured by satellites, and still the contribution of direct solar irradiance forcing is small compared to the greenhouse gas component. However, our understanding of the indirect effects of changes in solar output and feedbacks in the climate system is minimal. There is much need to refine our understanding of key natural forcing mechanisms of the climate, including solar irradiance changes, in order to reduce uncertainty in our projections of future climate change.

In addition to changes in energy from the sun itself, the Earth's position and orientation relative to the sun (our orbit) also varies slightly, thereby bringing us closer and further away from the sun in predictable cycles (called Milankovitch cycles). Variations in these cycles are believed to be the cause of Earth's ice-ages (glacials). Particularly important for the development of glacials is the radiation receipt at high northern latitudes. Diminishing radiation at these latitudes during the summer months would have enabled winter snow and ice cover to persist throughout the year, eventually leading to a permanent snow- or icepack. While Milankovitch cycles have tremendous value as a theory to explain ice-ages and long-term changes in the climate, they are unlikely to have very much impact on the decade-century timescale. Over several centuries, it may be possible to observe the effect of these orbital parameters, however for the prediction of climate change in the 21st century, these changes will be far less important than radiative forcing from greenhouse gases.

 

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